Category Archives: Teaching Moments

Spectacular Science – 4th of July Activities

This is an encore posting from June, 2011 on 4th of July science activities. Many areas in Colorado have cancelled their fireworks displays this year due to extremely hot and dry conditions. Here are some ways to celebrate without fireworks or firecrackers…

Independence Day is the absolute best of summer – picnics, barbecue, fireworks and family fun. Are you looking for something to keep everyone entertained during your 4th of July summer picnic? We have some suggestions for summer learning fun…Fourth of July celebrations.

Before you watch the rockets red glare, how about firing off some of your own rockets, making your own ice cream and designing your own light show?  Here are some of our recommendations to make your 4th of July barbecue sizzle.

Continue reading Spectacular Science – 4th of July Activities

This Summer is One of Worst Fire Seasons in Colorado – The Science Behind the Wildfire

By Blog Editor Susan Wells

Each year, an average of more than 75,000 wildfires burn an average of about 7 million acres of land in the United States.

– U.S. Forest Service

 

Courtesy 9News Denver Credit: Myrra Honeycutt
Waldo Canyon Fire

We are in the midst of one of the worst fire seasons in Colorado history and it’s still June. At present time, there are 10 major fires burning across the state. One, the Waldo Fire, is burning within the city limits of Colorado Springs. Another, the High Park fire, is burning near Fort Collins and has destroyed almost 250 homes.

Interactive Colorado Fire Map

So far this season, Colorado wildfires have burned acreage as big as the City and County of Denver. But what does it all mean? How do wildfires burn and grow? The fire in Colorado Springs grew from just over 6,000 acres on Tuesday to over 15,000 acres on Wednesday. Firefighters said there was a firestorm that pushed the fire to grow faster than expected.

Watch this timelapse video of the fire over five days. If you skip ahead to about 7:30 in the video, you can really see the firestorm and the weather system created by it.

A firestorm is a fire that is so intense that it creates and sustains its own wind system. A natural phenomenon, firestorms are created during some of the biggest wildfires. A firestorm is created as the heat of the fire draws in more and more surrounding air. If a low level Jet Stream exists near or over the fire, the air is drawn in even faster. As this occurs, strong, gusty winds develop around the fire, pulling the air inward supplying the fire with additional oxygen. The strong winds change direction erratically. The circulating wind can create fire tornadoes which quickly spread the fire to areas outside of the burning fire.

Courtesy 9News Denver
Credit: Chris Rains

The firestorm continues to pull in great quantities of oxygen, increasing combustion and increasing the heat. The intense heat can ignite flammable material at a great distance ahead of the fire. This helps the fire grow quickly and increases the intensity.

People and animals near a firestorm can die from lack of oxygen.

Heat from the fire can melt asphalt, metal and glass.

Firestorms can also produce fire clouds which can produce lightning and spark new fires.

Like the Waldo Canyon fire on Tuesday, Wildfires can take on a life of their own, tearing over ridges, changing direction and fighting to survive.

A fire needs fuel to burn, air to supply oxygen and a heat source. This forms a fire triangle. When fighting a fire, firefighters work to take away one of the pillars of the triangle, they can control and put out the blaze.

The Spangler Effect recently covered fire tornadoes –

Weather also plays a huge part in wildfire birth, growth and death. Temperature, wind and moisture affect wildfires and make it harder to fight them. Drought obviously leads to favorable fire conditions. Moisture can slow the fire down. Wildfires tend to rage in the afternoon after sunlight heats sticks, trees and leaves on the ground. The radiant heat dries fuels and allows them to ignite to burn faster. Cooler temperatures help the fire lay down and give firefighters the upper hand in gaining control.

Wind has a huge impact on wildfires adding additional oxygen and pushing the fire faster. It is also unpredictable, changing a fire’s direction without warning.

Courtesy 9News Denver.
Photo Credit: Matt Bogardus

Fire Suppression:

More than 30,000 people are currently on evacuation orders north and south of Denver. The High Park fire is so big, firefighters are estimating it may take until the end of July to contain it.

What does it mean to contain a fire?
Control lines are constructed or natural barriers at the fire’s edge used to control a fire. Firefighters manually dig lines around the edges of a fire. The goal is to keep the fire from jumping the line and continuing to grow. Rivers and roads are also used as containment lines. Lines do not always work and fires can jump to continue burning. A fire can go from 50% contained to 30% contained if a fire line is jumped.

Strong winds can blow embers over 1/2 a mile and ignite spot fires out and beyond the main fire. This is very dangerous for firefighters as they can become trapped between the two burning fires.

Courtesy 9News Denver. Photo Credit: Steven Mauser
Ash blown from Waldo Canyon Fire

Firefighters also set back fires. These fires are set to burn back towards the wildfire to create a burned zone and containment area.

How is containment measured? 
Containment is estimated by the fire manager until a 100% containment is reached.

Wildfire Suppression Tools:

MAFFS
Modular Airborne Firefighting Systems that are inserted into military C-130 aircraft that converts them to large airtankers when needed. The C-130’s can drop up to 3,000 gallons of fire retardant on wildfires. The entire load can be dropped in under five seconds. The U.S. Forest Service has a total of eight MAFFS in its fleet.

Airtankers deliver fire retardant to slow the growth of wildfires and reduce their intensity to assist firefighters constructing containment lines on the ground. Wildfires are stopped by the containment lines. The fire inside the lines usually burns itself out.

Helicopters are also used to drop retardant or water to assist firefighting efforts on the ground.

Courtesy 9News Denver
Credit: B Wilhelm

What Happens During Mop Up Stage:

Mop-up happens after any part of a fire is controlled. It makes the fire safe by extinguishing fires and removing burning materials. Firefighters put out smoldering materials and make sure burning fuel is burned out or buried to stop sparks from traveling. They also clear fire lines of hanging branches, brush and logs to ensure the fire is contained.

Infrared scanners on helicopters or other aircraft are then used to detect hot spots to aide the mop up process.

Courtesy 9News Denver.
Credit: Verne Glassman

Definitions:

Combustion:
A sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. Heat and light are produced from the reactions in the form of flames or a glow.  In rapid combustion large amounts of heat and light energy are released.

Controlled Burn:
A technique used by forest service or firemen to burn excess fuels like grass or bush to prevent wildfires or restore grassland or forest ecology. Fires can stimulate germination of some forest trees and in turn promote a healthier ecosystem.

Firestorm:
A wildfire that is so strong and intense, it creates it own winds.

Fire Tornado:
Like a wind tornado but is made of fire. As the heated air from the fire rises, strong air currents (often whipping through the trees) cause the air molecules to spin (often referred to as angular or rotational momentum) which shapes the flame into the shape of a tornado. This catches the tops of trees on fire and the fire jumps from tree top to tree top.

Oxidant: 
An oxidizing agent is a substance that removes electrons from another reactant in a chemical reaction. The oxidizing agent is reduced by taking electrons and the reactant is oxidized by having it’s electrons taken away. Oxygen is an oxidizing agent.

Smoke: 
Small particles suspended in air from an incomplete combustion of fuel.

Smolder:
A flameless form of combustion that gets its heat from oxidations on the surface of a fuel. Many materials can smolder – coal, tobacco, wood, fuels on the forest floor like peat and cotton clothing.

Wildfire:
An out of control fire burning in wildland areas – also known as a forest fire, grass fire, brush fire, bushfire or vegetation fire.

Wildland Fire Suppression: 
A type of fire fighting different than normal structure fire fighting. Wildfire crews work with firefighting aircraft to knock down flames, build a fireline and mop up hotspots.

For more information on the science wildfires, check out these great links:

* Thanks to Science Daily and Wikipedia for assistance in wildfire definitions. Thank you to 9News in Denver for the stunning images.

The Science of Sugar – How Much Sugar is in a Can of Soda?

Do you know how much sugar is in that can of soda you drink every afternoon? It’s well known that sugar accounts for the high calories in soda that lead to weight gain and unhealthy habits. But just how much is in that can and what about diet soda?

Start by placing different types and brands of soda into a bucket of water. Which ones will float and which ones will sink? Classify and take notes. Then move to the science behind your results. Why do some float and why do some sink?

Start with comparisons – we are going to use Coke and Diet Coke in our example. Both cans are the same size and hold the same volume 355 mL. The regular Coke weighs about 384 grams while the Diet Coke weighs 371 grams. The regular Coke has 140 calories, the diet Coke has zero calories. Are the calories the thing that makes it weigh more? Sort of.

The regular Coke has 39 grams of sugar. But what does that mean? About 18 packets of sugar in one can of regular Coke.

The reason the regular Coke sinks is the sugar content. If you drank one can of soda every day for a year, you would consume 32 pounds of sugar!

For more on the Science of Sugar, watch this week’s episode of The Spangler Effect where Steve goes beyond the sugar in a can of soda and makes some very sweet discoveries.

 

Can You Really Balance an Egg During the Equinox?

This is an encore posting of an article we ran in spring of 2010 about balancing an egg on the equinox. 

The first day of spring and the vernal equinox is this week. The vernal equinox marks the start of spring, an autumnal equinox marks the start of fall.  During the spring and fall equinox, the sun is directly over the Earth’s equator and day and night lengths are equal for most of the planet – 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

The earth rotates around the sun on a tilted axis, which doesn’t change. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, it experiences warmer, longer days. When the Northern Hemisphere tilts toward the sun, the Southern Hemisphere is tilted away, experiencing colder and shorter days.

As the earth continues on its path around the sun, there are two points at which the sun hits the Earth perpendicular to the axis. When the earth is in this position, the sun is directly over the equator and there is an equinox. The earth then continues to tilt the opposite side of the sun and the seasons change to winter in the Northern Hemisphere and summer in the Southern Hemisphere.

Where we live in the Northern Hemisphere, the vernal equinox signals the start of spring. The North Pole is tilted toward the sun and days grow longer and warmer while buds on trees and plants begin to sprout. In the Southern Hemisphere, the opposite is occurring. The South Pole tilts away from the sun and the days grow shorter and cooler.

It is believed that during the equinox an egg can balance on end. This is more myth than science, but every year during the equinox, this question arises. Yes, with a little patience you can balance an egg on end during the equinox.

What will happen if you try to balance the egg on March 21st? Or April 20th? Or October 2nd?  The egg will balance the same on any day as it does on the vernal or autumnal equinox. It helps if you try it on a rough surface or choose an egg with a bumpy end for better balance.
The myth comes from an assumption that during the equinox a special gravitational balance exists. The equinox is about balanced light, not balanced eggs or special gravity.

As an aside, a solstice occurs when the poles of the earth are tilted at their maximum away or toward the sun. At winter solstice, the pole is tilted furthest from the sun, at summer solstice it is tilted closest to the sun.

Staff Spotlight on DJ — The Man of Many Words … and Hats

Q: Tell us a little about who you are…
A:
My name is Daniel Joseph Souza. I’m a father of a 3-year-old English Springer Spaniel named Boomer, a brother to a soon-to-be-married baby sister, a son to the two most amazing and inspiring parents in the world, and, as of right this second, a person with the perfect life. Also, I like to wear hats.
Q: What do you do at Steve Spangler Science?
A: Speaking of hats, I wear a few of them for the company. I am a copywriter, marketing assistant, speaking assistant, and pretty much anything else that’s asked of me. Like I said, I like to wear hats.
Q: What do you like best about what you do?
A:
I’m lucky enough to use my degree and do something I love on a daily basis in copywriting. And what’s more, I get to be incredibly creative in the copy I do for the website, emails, and a lot of the other stuff you read from our company. Oh‚ and I get to wear hats.
Q:  What is your favorite Steve Spangler Science moment?
A:
  My favorite SSS moment, huh? There’s a ton to choose from, but recently I walked in on the product shoot for Crack Open Geodes. Bryan and Mattea (on our video team) were kind enough to do a bit of improv with me. We proceeded to convert a single Crack Open Geode into a “DJ Egg.” The new baby DJ hatched with a hat on and everything.
Q: What is something you wish every SSS customer knew?
A:
I wish every SSS customer knew how much time and care goes into every single step of them getting their awesome science gear. From product development, to customer service, to marketing, to production, to shipping‚ we all care immensely about getting you the best product, whether that be the information you get on the website or the sweet Potato Gun you get from FedEx. Some of us even wear hats to show how much we care.
Q: What is your favorite science experiment?
A:
 My favorite science experiment was one that I conducted my junior year of high school (shout out to Mr. Landis) in college-level chemistry. The experiment involved a reaction between potassium permanganate and glycerin and created this sweet purple flame. There was a point when that experiment went terribly wrong, but you had to be there. Also‚ hats.
Q: What do you like to do when not on the job?
A:
I’m really all over the place when I’m not at work. I don’t think I can possibly understate it any more than that. I’m currently trying to write a fiction novel about a post-Civil War boomtown in Colorado. I love listening to music. I love my people. I also have an affinity for eating food. And yes, you are correct, I wear hats.
Q: Anything else you’d like to share?
A:
Three things: 1.) Please, please, please use the Oxford Comma. B.) Are you having a bad day? Stop that. You’re awesome. III.) I love you. Hats.