Category Archives: Contributors

A Science Fair Project on Time Change That Just Might Change the World

By Contributor Scott Yates

It’s true that not everyone is a fan of science fair projects.

But what if students could be involved in a project that directly affects them and their families? What if they could help prove that a governmental decision is a bad one, and one that should be reversed? What if the could get some extra sleep in the spring, right when it’s needed?

Time Change - Science Fair Project | Steve Spangler Science Blog

They can. Here’s how:

Daylight Saving Time is one of the least-understood government mandates out there. It’s confusing, disruptive, and deeply unpopular, especially in the spring when the clocks “spring forward” and we lose an hour of sleep.

I’m happy to say, however, that I’m now leading a movement to do away with the concept, but I need the help of science-minded students all over the country.

You see, the research that has been done about the clock changing for DST is all negative. The New England Journal of Medicine reports that it increases heart attacks. Other studies show that traffic accidents increase, productivity goes down, etc.

And yet, the time change is still with us twice per year. Why?

Well, the time zone a state or even part of a state was in was once something that the state got to decide. Then in 1967 the U.S. Congress passed and the president signed a law making the time more uniform. Only Arizona and Hawaii now keep the same time all year long, an exemption made by that law.

Now when states look at the matter, they find that they can’t decide on their own any more. The federal government will deny any application to change.

The only way we can make it work is if all the states band together. My suggestion is that all the states pass some kind of bill or resolution saying that they want to stop the crazy DST clock-changing. The trick is that no state wants to be first (or last) so I think they should just pass something saying that if two-thirds of the states pass something similar, than they will apply to the Feds and ask to be exempted.

And who should ask our state legislators? I propose that — the science-minded students of America.

There’s not much time left, so the first step is to create a bit of science. I can envision many great experiments, starting with:

  • How does a family’s energy use change?,
  • What are the computational abilities in students on the day after the clock-change?
  • What is the tardiness rates after the change?

Here’s another example from the master himself:

And here’s the part that makes it so great: After you do that science showing that clock-changing for DST is a bad idea, you can take it to your elected state-level official. They love hearing from students.

Than ask them to introduce or at least vote for a resolution that follows this model language for getting rid of Daylight Saving clock-changing.

How’s that for extra credit? Imagine saying that you did some science that helped change federal law and ended the dangerous precedent of changing clocks based on out-dated ideas.

I hope you will join in this effort, and if you do please let me know on this blog. I will be sure to highlight your success there.

 

Scott Yates is founder of a blog writing company, an inventor, and a father.

 

Don’t Miss Your Best Chance to Study Electrostatics

By Christy McGuire, ThrivingSTEM.com

For those of us who live in the United States it is winter time right now.  Most people think about snow as the main scientific aspect of winter.  Some may even think about the increase in darkness.  However, for most of us, winter also means your best chance to do electrostatics and have your demonstration actually work.

StudyElectrostaticsSquare-McGuire

Electrostatics are all those cool demonstrations where you remove the electrons from one object and then the other object wants to stick to it. You can then send the electrons back, creating mini-lightning. Electrostatics are also responsible for the phenomenon of hat hair.

I am sure some of you know the joke about biology stinking,  chemistry exploding, and physics failing.  Electrostatic experiments are super cool, but they can also be particularly prone to failure.  The main culprit is usually extra humidity.  Extra water molecules hanging around will ruin your experiment because those polar water molecules attract extra electrons to hang out with them instead of going to the object of your choice.  That means that the potential difference that should have been created by the electron imbalance may be too small to do anything impressive in your demonstration.

The amount of water that the air can carry decreases with temperature.  Colder air, is often dryer than it would be if it were warm.  Hot air can also be dry, but cold air has to be dry. That’s why your electrostatic experiments will be at their best now, in the winter.  Of course, if you live in Florida, that may be a bit different, but at least it will not be raining every day, so I would still pull out your toys and give them a try if I were you!

Ready but not sure quite what to do?

Here are some ideas.  You will notice that Van der Graaf generators are conspicuously missing. I do not have access to one right now, but if you do and you have a great post about, please link it up in the comments. Most of these are ideas are simple enough that you could have each student do their own.  You could then assign each student to teach a family member how the demonstration works and why.

Ideas for electrostatic demonstrations

Attraction

Steve Spangler uses a charge of static electricity to make objects float with Floating Static Bands.

The Rebecca at the Kids Activities Blog lists four different demonstrations that can be done with balloons.

You could add some fun with paper frogs like they did at Science Sparks or a Snake, Kids Activities Blog.

Schooling a Monkey recommends using a comb. 

This electroscope from education.com could be calibrated to allow your students to do some experimentation and numerical analysis.

I think this butterfly from I Heart Crafty Things is my favorite though!

Electrostatic Discharge (AKA “lightning”)

This demonstration from Raising Life Long Learners is really simple to prepare.

Learn Play Imagine has another demonstration that would probably be pretty impressive and save you the need to find a dark room, or to take your class into one.

 

Happy Experimenting!

Christy McGuire is a trained physics teacher who loves developing new ways for students to engage with science.  While taking a break from the high school classroom, Christy rediscovered that young children are tons of fun, and can learn powerful science and math too.  Now she is attempting to cross the excitement of early childhood style learning with serious STEM study to benefit students on both ends of the learning process.    Find activities and reflections on STEM learning on her blog: www.ThrivingSTEM.com.

How to Study Density with Popcorn

by Christy McGuire, Contributor

Thanksgiving is almost here! You can use one of the original foods from the first Thanksgiving to discuss density with your students. Popcorn is fascinating because it changes so drastically during the cooking process. The color, shape and texture of a popped kernel are all different than those of an unpopped kernel. If you can spare the day before Thanksgiving break, this simple density experiment would be a great way to practice their inquiry skills, and a great excuse to have a treat in class!

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn/How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

If your students have already covered density, this is a great time to practice doing a full exploration complete with a written report. You might simply give them access to the relevant materials and set them loose with this challenge:

Find how density changes for popped verses upopped corn. Check the results of your experiment and write a description of your findings, including an error analysis.

If density is a new concept, or if your students are struggling to get the hang of the scientific method, you can help them figure out the procedure. Make them do as much of the thinking as possible though! Science is more fun for the engineer making the decisions than for the technician doing as he is told.

Leading questions to help students develop their procedures

How do we calculate density? (mass per volume)

What measurements will we need to take in order to find density? (mass and volume)

How do we measure mass? How do we measure volume? (balance, and appropriate beakers)

How are we changing the popcorn? (popping method)

The Science of Popcorn

Hints for a successful experiment

You can expect your popcorn to increase in volume by about 16X.

To  pop the corn over heat, put a couple of tablespoons of oil in the pot or beaker, add corn and heat over medium heat.

If you are using a microwave, you can measure the volume of the popcorn in a bag of microwave popcorn and assume the same volume is in a second bag of popcorn that you pop before class.

Increase accuracy by repeating with varying quantities of popcorn, or by combining data from multiple lab groups.

Science of Popcorn

Data Analysis

If you wish, you can have your students graph mass a function of volume for various amounts of unpopped corn, then do another graph for the popped corn. The slope of these graphs will be the density of the popcorn.

You can also ask your students to compute density algebraically, then graph density as a function of popped or unpopped.

Requiring students to analyze the accuracy of their results could provide some very interesting feedback. Lab groups could compare results with the rest of the class. They can also compare the initial and final masses and try to defend any changes that they find. My experience is that the mass of the popcorn actually increases during this experiment. Don’t tell your students! See what they can come up with to justify their own answers. Factors that they may want to consider include the mass and volume of the oil used to cook the kernels and the humidity on the day of the experiment.

No matter what your students’ level, this experiment can be adjusted to provide a challenging, and interesting exercise. I hope you will enjoy. Happy Thanksgiving!

 

Christy McGuire is a trained physics teacher who loves developing new ways for students to engage with science.  While taking a break from the high school classroom, Christy rediscovered that young children are tons of fun, and can learn powerful science and math too.  Now she is attempting to cross the excitement of early childhood style learning with serious STEM study to benefit students on both ends of the learning process.    Find activities and reflections on STEM learning on her blog: www.ThrivingSTEM.com.

How to Use Popcorn to Teach Rates

by Christy McGuire, Contributor

This time of year, students’ minds are starting to drift to the upcoming Thanksgiving Holidays. Why not use popcorn to channel a little of that excitement into your classroom? Use popcorn to teach graphing, rate, and slope. Let your students eat your props, and you will quickly be one of the coolest teachers to ever discuss rates.Here is how to use popcorn to teach rates.

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn/How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

The Slow Approach

Materials:

  • Popcorn
  • Paper towel
  • Small plastic bag
  • Cups of Potting Soil
  • Ruler

Last week I gave some ideas for teaching younger students about seeds using popcorn.  Corn germinates quickly and grows quickly too, which makes it a great plant to measure over a period of time. You can get a meaningful graph by measuring every day or so.

 

  1. Start having students set up corn to germinate in the window. You can expect germination to take about three days.
  2. Then plant it in a pot with soil.
  3. Have your students measure the height of the plants every day or every two days between now and Thanksgiving, and record your findings on a labeled data chart.
  4. On the last class before Thanksgiving break, you can have them graph their findings. You may want to remind them that time is the independent variable, and thus belongs on the x (across the page) axis. Height is the dependent variable and thus belongs on the y (vertical) axis.

How to Use Popcorn to Teach Rates

The Fast Approach

Materials:

  • Popcorn
  • Stop watch
  • Oil
  • Cooking Pot
  • Heat Source

(You can also use a bag of popcorn and a microwave)

Have your students get set with lined paper and their pencils. Tell them that during each twenty-second interval, they are to make a mark for each pop that they hear.
When you call time, move to the next line and make a mark for each pop. They will repeat until all the corn is popped.

  1. Put a couple tablespoons of oil in the cooking pot and about a quarter cup of popcorn. Cook on medium heat with the lid covering the pot.
  2. When you are finished, pop some more corn, and let your students enjoy while they make their data charts and graphs. Time is again the independent variable and belongs on the x (horizontal) axis.
  3. If there is interest, try repeating for differing amounts of popcorn and think about how the amounts affect your data.
How to Use Popcorn to Teach Rates
Analyzing the Data for Either Approach (or Both!)

Depending on where you are in your curriculum, there are a few different directions you can take your class after completing their graphs.

If you do both of these projects, ask students to write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the graphs.

Or, You can have your students draw tangent lines near the beginning and end of the curve. Tell them to find the slope of each and write an explanation of why the slopes are different.

Or, ask your students to add best fit lines to the graph and calculate their slopes. Students can write a paragraph in which they compare and contrast the results of the best fit line to those of the tangent line and give an opinion on which is more useful.

Or, tell students to add a third tangent line in the middle, and find that slope. Then, graph the slopes verses time.   Ask students to write a paragraph explain the meaning of this new slope.

Put popcorn on the shopping list and plan to have some fun in your class this week.

 

Christy McGuire is a trained physics teacher who loves developing new ways for students to engage with science.  While taking a break from the high school classroom, Christy rediscovered that young children are tons of fun, and can learn powerful science and math too.  Now she is attempting to cross the excitement of early childhood style learning with serious STEM study to benefit students on both ends of the learning process.    Find activities and reflections on STEM learning on her blog: www.ThrivingSTEM.com.

How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn
by Christy McGuire, Contributor

Students’ minds are turning to the holidays. You can harness some of that excitement by including some holiday-themed activities in your classroom.

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn/How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

There are many great learning activities that follow holiday themes. Here are two activities that combine Thanksgiving and science.

We love studying (eating!) popcorn seeds year round at our house.

Here are two activities that will help your students understand the parts and functions of a seed.

Used together you have a hands-on opportunity to discuss all the parts of a seed and their functions, and the general characteristics of a seed as well.

A key to making these activities irresistible. Is to use the same popcorn for all parts of the demonstration. If possible, pop the corn in front of your students.

Activity one : Grow a Popcorn Plant

This classic demonstration is more intriguing done with popcorn.

Materials:  

  • unpopped corn
  • baggies
  • wet paper towels
  • tape
  • windows

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn/How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

Steps: 

1. Let your students place three or so kernels in the baggy with a wet napkin.

2. Write their names on the baggies and tape them to the window.

Corn germinates quickly, so if you set this demonstration up on Friday, chances are good that by Monday you will have something fun to look at.

Some questions to ask the day that the seeds germinate:

“Where does the energy for the little plant to grow come from?”

“Why do all of our plants look similar to each other?”

“Why is corn planted in the spring and not in the fall?”

 

Activity two: Seed coat observation

This activity was actually developed by my children. Playing in water is always a hit!

For maximum excitement, pull this activity out on the day your students find the germinated popcorn seeds as a kind of extension.

Materials:  

  • unpopped corn
  • a method for popping the corn
  • water in small dishes

Steps: 

1. Hand out popped and unpopped corn.

2. Tell your students to draw pictures and write descriptions in their science journals.

3. Have your students place unpopped corn in a dish of water.

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn/How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

4. Pop some corn.

5. Have your students place it in a second dish of water.

6. Wait for five minutes or so. While you are waiting, discuss the seeds.

“What is the difference between these two types of popcorn?”

“What is the yellow shiny thing on the outside of the unpopped corn?”

“Why do you think seed coats are important?”

How to Study Seeds with Popcorn/How to Combine Thanksgiving and Science in your Elementary Classroom

7. When the five minutes has passed, encourage your students to make observations and record them by drawing pictures and  writing descriptions. First have them just look at the seeds, then allow them to touch the seeds as well.

Some questions to ask in summary:

What about the seeds changed?”

“What stayed the same?”

“Why do you think the seed coat is important?”

Finally after all that work, be sure to EAT some popcorn.   (Check for corn allergies first.) Nothing is better than eating your own experiment! Oh, and while you are munching, “What is it about seeds that makes them good to eat?”

 

 

Christy McGuire is a trained physics teacher who loves developing new ways for students to engage with science.  While taking a break from the high school classroom, Christy rediscovered that young children are tons of fun, and can learn powerful science and math too.  Now she is attempting to cross the excitement of early childhood style learning with serious STEM study to benefit students on both ends of the learning process.    Find activities and reflections on STEM learning on her blog: www.ThrivingSTEM.com.